The city of Alexandria was established as the capital of Egypt in 332 BC and this ancient city remained as the capital of Egypt for around one thousand years until the Muslims opened Egypt and changed the capital to the Fustat, the first Islamic capital in Egypt. 
The library of Alexandria had many names because of its greatness and the number and variety of books it contained. It was named "the royal library of Alexandria, the Grand Library, or the great library of Alexandria. The library acted as a major center for science and culture for many centuries. 
The ancient library was built due to the orders of Ptolemy the second in the third century BC and it was said that it contained 700,000 books and it was the greatest library in the world at that time. This is besides the fact that many great scientists studied in the library like Archimedes 
The library of Alexandria became famous world wide because it was the first public governmental library in history. There were many libraries in the times of the pharos but it was exclusive for the priests of the temples and the royal family. The library contained the science, civilization, and books of two remarkable periods: The Pharonic and the Greek. 
The two civilizations of the west and east met in this great library through books and lectures that the library hosted and it was considered the first attempt for the modern concept of globalization. 
 
It was obligatory that any scholar who studies in the library of Alexandria has to leave a copy of his writings in the library. Maybe this was why the library was rich with books, researches, and studies that was contemporary at the time. This is besides the books of older periods. The responsible for the library freed them selves from discrimination of all sorts in order to collect all the sciences and ideas of the whole world in one great location. 
 
 
The burning of the library 
 
Most historians believe that Julius Cesar burned 101 ships that were landing on the Mediterranean Sea shore in front of Alexandria in the year 48 BC. This was after little Ptolemy, the brother of Cleopatra, went to fight Cesar thinking that he is helping the queen to fight against him. This great fire reached the library and caused a huge damage to the building of the library and its books. 
The history also recorded when the Roman emperor Thyosyos ordered his man to destroy the library. However, some historians claim that the library stood still till the year 640 AD when the Moslems burned it under the orders of Amr Ibn Al Aas, the Moslem leader who conquered Egypt at the time. Some other scholars believe that when Amr entered Alexandria the library was no longer there and he has nothing to do with its damage and that the library was totally destroyed in the period of Julius Cesar. 
 
The modern library 
 
The first initiative to rebuild the library of Alexandria goes back to the year 1974. However, no factual steps took place except in the late 80s.
The first step in the building of the modern library was the declaration of the Egyptian president that he intends to rebuild the library with the aid of the UNESCO the new library of Alexandria was launched and the dream to reestablish the library once more was shared among all the people of Egypt and the whole world. The library was officially opened on the 17th of October 2002 in the location of the ancient library. 
Hosny Mubarak then established the public authority of the library of Alexandria and made an international architectural designing competition and the prize was sixty thousand American dollars which was won by Snohetta, the Norwegian architectural design grand company. 
 
The design of the library 
 
The design of the modern library of Alexandria consisted of four underground stores and six upper stores. The special shape of the modern library of Alexandria is considered a special architectural germ. 
The oval shape of library from outside that is a symbol of the continuity of life as the sun comes out of the sea and goes from the highest point till the lowest point overlooking the sea. The library is sounded by a great wall that was made out of Aswan Granite and it contains writing and inscriptions in 120 languages
The library is 10 stores height which have an oval shape cover with a radius of 60 meters. The library is divided into reading sections which is 14.4 × 9.6 meters in size. The library was designed to last for two centuries but there are fears that this period might be exaggerated because of its closeness to the sea. 
 
The objective of the new library is the same objective of the old library: to act as a public research library and to support the people of the Arab world and the Middle East to retain their old position as scholars and researchers in different fields of science. 
The library of Alexandria is considered the first digital library in the whole world and it contains a place to include 8 million books, six specialized libraries, three museums, research centers, two permanent galleries, six halls to host art exhibitions, an internet archive, audio and visual library, a special library for blind people, a library for children, a library for teenagers, a microfilm library, the library of the rare books and a conference center.
 
 

 

Every town in ancient Rome had an amphitheater, which means, "double theater". They were grand and impressive, shaped in a half circle, open to the sky, and might have held 100.000 people. The stage had no curtain; it was just a stone platform.

Imagine yourself in ancient Alexandria, in the Roman theater on a hot afternoon. All you can smell is the Mediterranean mist; all you can see are wild beasts, driven in through the tall doorway, and the fighters coming in from all around the floor. Famous jockeys and gladiators are walking in, and then the excitement begins.

The Roman theater is located in the modern area of Kom El-Dikaa, which is almost in the center of the city of Alexandria, Egypt bordered by Horrya street from the north, Nabi Daniel street from the west, Abdel Moneim street from the south, and Saphia Zaghloul street from the east.

Dating from the 2nd century A.D it has a large auditorium, about 42m in diameter. The outer face of this building was probably adorned with columns located in several story. In later times the theater was rebuilt and its auditorium was diminished to 33.5 m in diameter. It then counted 16 rows of marble seats

The last major rebuild was in the 6th century A.D, when the stage was turned into a huge vestibule, joined with the auditorium by means of a triple–arcade. Two marble pedestals and the bases of the columns are preserved. The auditorium was lowered to 13 rows of seats, and a dome, which soon fell into ruins, covered it. 

 
 
 
The Montazah Palace Though the gardens are a part of the more than three hundred and fifty acre grounds of the large royal home known as the Muntazah Palace, the Montazah Royal Gardens take up more than half of the property.
 
The palace was constructed in the 1800s by Abbas II, and though additions have been made to the impressive structure (including two hotels) the majority of the area is free to use by the people of the city.
 
Located at the Mediterranean Sea
 
The Royal Gardens in Alexandria are situated along the shore as well, which means access to the lovely beaches and warm Mediterranean Sea waters nearby. In fact, the property includes an enclosed cove, with a specially constructed bridge that permits the small pleasure boats to come easily in and out of the bay without any concerns of the rougher waters beyond the reach of the land. 
 
Additionally, there is a charming lighthouse to help guide boats safely past the cove.
 
The Royal Gardens in Alexandria are a bit unique where city parks and public spaces are concerned as they are rigorously landscaped, and well-stocked with benches and wading or swimming pools that are open for the public to enjoy.
 
The Haramlek & Salamlek
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In addition to containing Montazah Royal Gardens on the grounds, the site is also home to the Haramlek which is the location of a casino and a museum. The Salamlek is a luxury hotel within the palace property as well, and is a popular choice for many visitors to the ancient city.
 
 
 
 
 
The Citadel of Qaitbey is a fortress located on the edge of the Mediterranean, and was built on the ruins of the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria.
 
History of the Fort
 
Standing on the foundations of one of the famous “Seven Wonders of the World” is the Qaitbey Citadel, Alexandria, Egypt. 
 
This fortress is seated upon the exact location of the Lighthouse of Alexandria which was completely eliminated by several earthquakes over the centuries, beginning in the 800s and continuing to the eleventh century. By the fourteenth century the entire site had been destroyed and the Mameluke Sultan Al-Ashraf Qaitbay decided to use the location as a defensive fort.
 
A castle was constructed on the location, with a mosque contained inside of it, and it continued to work its defensive wonders well into the 1800s. The Qaitbey Citadel did experience years of decline and neglect, but was taken in hand by the Egyptian Supreme Counsel of Antiquities within the last century and is now fully restored and open for visitation.
 
A Defense against the Turks
 
Though the Qaitbey Citadel was initially constructed as a defense against the Ottoman Turks it eventually fell into their hands, and they actually maintained the building quite well. 
 
Later the French were able to defeat the Turks and, in turn, took possession of the building, and in the late 1700s were astounded to find that some of the weapons used during the Crusades remained within the Qaitbey Citadel’s walls.
 
Damaged by the British
 
Later enhancements to its defenses included cannons and strengthening of the ramparts. When Mohammed Ali became the ruler in Egypt during the early 1800s the Citadel of Qaitbey received a great deal of attention, improvement and restoration. 
 
Again however the city of Alexandria came under attack in the late 1800s and a British bombardment damaged the structure quite badly. For nearly half a century afterward the Citadel of Qaitbey, Alexandria was ignored. Finally, in the mid-1900s it was converted into a museum and then fully restored.
 
 
 
 
The Alexandria National Museum is considered to be one of the best museums in all of Egypt. This Alexandria attractions informs you about where to go and what to see in Alexandria, Egypt
 
The history of the world’s greatest cities shows that most experience a long period of growth and expansion and then a longer and slower period of decline. While most remain in existence, they tend to fail to recover from their loss of power or importance. 
 
For example, the long-standing and historic capitol city of Memphis in Egypt hardly has anything to prove that it existed for thousands of years. Interestingly, the ancient city of Alexandria, on the northern coast of Egypt has withstood the many tests of time, and today visitors can trace it's amazing story at the National Museum of Alexandria.
 
 
Thousands Years of History


Though the facility is less than ten years old, it houses thousands of years of the country’s remarkable history. The National Museum of Alexandria is in a restored Italian palace near the center of the historic city. Currently its inventory numbers at approximately eighteen hundred artifacts which trace periods from the era of the pharaohs to the modern period.
 
 
While five or six thousand years may not seem like that long a time span in human history, for Egypt it was a very busy, active and productive period. 
 
The Alexandria National Museum demonstrates this through its displays of mummies dating back to the earliest dynasties of Pharaonic Egypt, from some of the most recently recovered artifacts taken from the underwater archaeological explorations in the city’s harbor and from the religious artifacts from the many periods of later history.
 
Because the Alexandria National Museum is of such a young age many of its collections are actually from other museums. In fact, most of the artifacts on display have rarely been seen by the public before because they were items kept in storage due to lack of space or adequate security.
 
 
 
Pompeys Pillar Alexandria is one of the most frequently visited attractions within the ancient city of Alexandria, and is also the tallest ancient monument remaining
 
Who is Pompey?
 
Who is Pompey, and why does he have a pillar in Alexandria? Interestingly, the naming of Pompeys Pillar in Alexandria, Egypt is a mistake. Historians now know that the pillar was placed in honor of Diocletian, a Roman Emperor who reclaimed Alexandria after a rebellion in the year 298.
 
Regardless of its mistaken identity, Pompey’s Pillar is one of the most frequently visited attractions within the ancient city, and is also the tallest ancient monument remaining.
 
The pillar itself is the only remaining sign of an ancient temple colonnade marking the location of the Serapeum. When Paganism was to be eradicated from the city by the Christians in the fourth century, the vast structure was destroyed with the exception of the single column.
 
Today it stands atop the city’s acropolis, a nearly four hundred ton piece of red Aswan granite. 
 
Nearby are some remaining sphinx statuary and beneath Pompey’s Pillar are the underground chambers and remains of the followers of Serapis, including some storage areas where it is believed the contents of the famous Library of Alexandria may have been stored.
 
The Serapeum
 
It is a good idea to know a bit about the Serapeum before making a visit to the site, as envisioning the enormous structure with its one hundred steps leading up to the colonnade lined with equally impressive pillars will make for a truly moving experience. 
 
Pompey’s Pillar stands alone now, but it was once flanked by many similar neighbors and it somehow withstood the destructive forces of many centuries.
 
Within the Serapeum would have been legions of religious texts and papyrus as well as the galleries where the many generations of Apis bulls resided. In fact, excavations have discovered three of the bulls remains.
 
Many visitors take in the enormous Arab cemetery when making a visit to the lovely site of Pompey’s Pillar.